Personalizing Medicine

The use of genetic testing as both an analytical and predictive tool is revolutionizing medicine. The technology and understanding of the interaction of genes and medications are constantly improving. In establishing our Pharmacogenetics practice, Alcala is dedicated to being absolutely current so you can be confident our results and interpretations reflect the best a fast-moving science has to offer.

Alcala Labs applies high-throughput Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) to identify variants that influence drug efficacy. Briefly, most of the DNA variations found in genes that impact drug response are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small (< 5 bp) deletions. These are assayed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA ligation-based protocols carried out on patient genomic DNA.

Final analysis through sequencing using Illumina synthesis (SBS) technology allows the bases of a small fragment of DNA to be sequentially identified from signals emitted, as each fragment is re-synthesized from a DNA template strand. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) extends this process across millions of reactions in a massively parallel fashion.

The Alcala Multi-Drug Sensitivity Panel considers more than 20 genes influencing the performance of dozens of drugs commonly prescribed for cardiac care, psychiatry, and pain management. Results are presented in clear, easy-to-understand reports that describe the genetic variants the physician should consider in crafting a personal treatment plan for that particular patient.



  1. Patient Information/FAQ

    Frequently asked questions about pharmacogenetic testing.

  2. Drugs covered by PGx

    A list of medications with pharmacogenetic associations can be found here.

  3. Drug-Drug Interactions

    A list of medications covered by our drug-drug interaction guidance is here.

  4. Drug Metabolism

    The different types of metabolizers and what they indicate are described here.

  5. Risk Management

    To see a table listing the risks of PGx testing, click here.